Six evidence-based tips to reduce your cancer risk
#1: Get screened!
Early screening can help prevent many cancer
diagnoses and even deaths. For example, screening for cervical and colorectal cancers can find precancerous cells, which can be treated before they become cancerous. And pap smears, colonoscopies, and mammograms help find cancers in their early stages, increasing the odds for treatment success.
Guidelines may change over time. For example, lung cancer
screening has not been part of preventive medical care in the past but has recently been included for people who are at high risk (older adults with a history of heavy smoking). In other cases, experts have recommended less frequent screenings, for fear of false positives and over-diagnosis.
So, talk to your physician to make sure you're complying with all of the current preventive guidelines, which vary depending on your age, sex, and risk factors.
#2: Quit smoking right away
Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors in the development of cancer
in the lungs, head and neck, pancreas, and urinary tract. In fact, it's the leading cause of cancer diagnoses and death.
However, within 10 years of quitting this habit, there can be up to a 90% reduction in lung cancer risk. Smoking cessation is one of the most powerful cancer prevention strategies, and programs can be found in almost every city nationwide. It's a hard habit to quit, so seek out professional guidance if you can.
#3: Keep active
According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, about 25% of cancer cases worldwide could be due to obesity
and sedentary lifestyle. This suggests that one in four cancer diagnoses may be prevented with the help of exercise and an active lifestyle.
Studies have also shown that becoming engaged in an exercise program may reduce the risk for some types of cancer. That includes jogging, weight training, cycling, and power walking. As you become more active and start including exercise in your daily life, you will most likely reach a healthier body weight, serving as an additional protective factor against cancer development.
#4: Eat a healthful diet
The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was created to shed light on food and cancer investigations. Its results mainly found that a healthy diet
can have a tremendous effect on our ability to prevent some cancers.
Specifically, we can help prevent intestinal and colorectal cancers through consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fish. On the other hand, processed meat (bacon, hot dogs, bologna, and ham) may be involved in the development of colorectal cancers.
While there's still more research to be done in this area, we should do what we can to reduce cancer risk by eating a diet full of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and beans. Start consuming more sweet potatoes, spinach, tomatoes, carrots, broccoli, legumes, blueberries, garlic, and onions. At the same time, it's also recommended to limit animal-derived foods, sugar, and fried foods.
#5: Limit alcohol
Moderate to severe alcohol consumption has been linked to various types of cancer, especially liver cancer
. The combination of alcohol and tobacco use further increases the risk for cancers of the upper digestive and respiratory tract.
These results suggest that limiting the use of alcohol is key for promoting health. This doesn’t mean alcohol is all bad or cancer-causing — it only suggests that it should be consumed in moderation. So, yes, it's fine to keep drinking that glass of red wine with dinner.
#6: Spend only a short time in the sun
Vitamin D plays an important role in bone health, but studies suggest it can also help prevent many types of cancer, including breast cancer
. Vitamin D is absorbed through sun exposure and certain foods (like fish), as well as supplements. However, supplementation of vitamin D has provided inconsistent results for cancer prevention.
Daily exposure to sunlight is the best way to make sure you get your daily dose of this important vitamin. Just 20 minutes a day spent outdoors should do the trick. However, make sure to use protective clothing and apply sunscreen if you plan on spending more than 20 minutes outside, as excessive sun exposure has been linked to skin cancer